Tag Archives: vps

Server setup: Setting up a firewall

A firewall is a basic filter that can provide an efficient protection to your server by only allowing the traffic in and out as the rules of the firewall allows it. Setting up a firewall on a Ubuntu Linux server does not need to be complicated – in fact the one used in this example is called “uncomplicated firewall”.

To get the firewall up and running make sure it’s installed through the package manager. Login and switch to a root shell, then install the firewall with this command:

apt-get install ufw

If everything goes okay, the firewall is installed but not configured nor enabled.

Firewall Configuration

I find the easiest way to mange the firewall is through a little script in the root home directory. The beginning script could look something like this:

ufw reset
ufw allow from
#ufw allow ssh
ufw enable
ufw status

Line 2 resets any existing configuration rules in the firewall.

In line 3 you should change the to you own fixed IP address if you have one (you really ought to). This line will allow any traffic from you ip-number into the server (assuming there is something able to receive it naturally).

If you haven’t a fixed IP number line 3 should be removed and line 4 used instead. It allows SSH connections from any outside IP-number to knock on the door – then well rely on the SSH daemon (and the configuration of this) to reject any unwanted visitors knocking on the server.

Line 5 enables the firewall and line 6 prints a list of the current status and configuration of the firewall.

Depending on what you are using your server to do, you’ll probably need a few more lines in the firewall script. If you’re running a webserver, you should at least add a line (just above the “ufw enable” line) allowing web traffic to pass through the server:

utf enable www

Are you using https on you’re webserver? – then you need to allow that too:

utf enable www

The simple enable lines above are suitable for “publicly accessible services”. If you’re running something the whole world should be able to use, UFW allows for that too. The Community documentation on UFW over at the Ubuntu site is quite helpful.

Server setup: A user account

So, I’ve been moving the site to a VPS – a Virtual Private Server. A VPS is basically the same as a physical server to which you can’t have physical access. When you get your virtual server, most likely it will be setup with a basic disk image with an Operating System and a root account. In my case at DigitalOcean I choose to setup an Ubuntu Linux image and here are the first moves you should take after creating the VPS to get the basic security in place.

Setting up a user account

At DigitalOcean the server images is deployed and once it’s ready you get a mail with the root password. Letting root login over the internet is pretty bad practice, so the first step you should do is login (over SSH) and setup a new user. Creating the new user is done with the adduser command and follow the instructions, then start visudo to grant your new user some special powers:

adduser newuser

In the visudo file you want to add copy of an existing line. Find this line:

root    ALL=(ALL:ALL) ALL

… and make a copy of the line. Change the “root” to your newly created login name to grant you new user the right to become root.
Save and exit the file. Check out can be come root from you new account (first switch to the new user with the command “su – newuser” (change newuser to you new username), then try to switch back to root by writing “sudo su -” and enter the password to your new user account (not the root password, and surely you didn’t use the same right?). If this success enter “exit” twice to get back to the initial root shell. The new account is setup and has the rights to become root.

Setting up SSH

Next step is preventing root from login in from remote locations (we only want the newly created account from above to be able to login remotely and then change to root if needed).

Setup the .ssh directory

Assuming you have an existing SSH key set start up creating a “.ssh” directory in you new users directory.
Add your public key to the directory (it’s probably called “id_rsa.pub”) and name it “authorized_keys”.

Make sure…

  • the .ssh directory and the file in it is owned by your newuser-account (not root).
  • the directory is set to 0700 and the file to 0600 (using the chmod command).

You should now be able to login to the “newuser” account remotely using SSH.

Reconfiguring the SSH daemon

Asuming your new account is setup and able to login from remote with SSH the next step should be reconfiguring the SSH daemon to a more secyre setup, open the sshd-configuration file with this command (as root):

vi /etc/ssh/sshd_config

The changes you should make are these two:

PasswordAuthentication no
PermitRootLogin no

The first requires we only allow logins using public-key authentication – no password-only logins. The second denies root to login from remote. If we need root access, we must login with the regular account and then change to root.

Once the changes are med, make sure they take effect by reloading the SSH daemon with this command (as root):

reload ssh

Once this is completed, please move on and setup a firewall.

The emergency hatch

Should you get into trouble and not be able to get back in to your server using SSH, DigitalOcean offers an emergency hatch. If you log into the backend (where you created the VPS) there’s an option to get “console” access to your server. Using this console is as close as you can get to actually sitting with a console next to the machine, and could be the access you needed to fix any misconfiguration or problem preventing you getting in through regular SSH.

Moving the site

This site (and my other site in Danish) have been hosted on a cheap shared hosting site a few years. As shared hosting platforms go, the service and features at GigaHost was quite reasonable, but their servers seemed continuously overloaded and the site had a few issues from time to time. I’ve been moving everything from the shared hosting platform to the smallest available VPS server at DigitalOcean.

Why the move?

  • Performance on shared hosting platforms never seems to amaze.
  • Limited set of features – no shell access, dummy selfcare interface, reasonable features – but limited.
  • Was dirt cheap when I moved in, but not as much – the VPS is actually priced lower.

How did I move the site?

The various parts of the move will probably be described in details in further posts on the site in the foreseeable future, but basically the steps included:

  • setting up an account on Digital Ocean and creating a droplet.
  • setting up a user acount, getting a firewall up and running, securing a few items.
  • installing a webserver and mysql.
  • moving the data from the shared hosting platform (databases and code) to the new webserver.
  • testing everything works by hacking the local hosts-file.
  • redirecting DNS to point to the new site.
  • deleting all stuff from the shared hosting platform once everything has been verified to work as expected.

What comes next…

Running my own server opens a lot of interesting new possibilities. I’m no longer running Apache (which was mandatory previously). Now I’m running nginx which seems much more light-weight.  I’m also running NewRelic which seems to provide amazing insights into how the server resources are utilized.

My first experiments on this server, has been focused on getting the old stuff up and running. You might notice, that the site is running somewhat faster (and I’m still tweaking things).

I expect to be able to use this server to experiment with node.js, ruby and other interesting stuff… and the Comunity help pages at Digital Ocean seems quite amazing.


Caution: Here be dragons!

Running your on server (virtual or real) is slightly more complicated than being just another guest on a shared hosting platform. While I do feel reasonable fit on a Linux platform (and run it as my daily desktop), I’ve been blessed with a hints and help from a friend throughout the process which made the move considerably faster (and the settings far more secure from the outset.

I’m sure I’ll run into some trouble along the way – I even managed to -amost – shut myself out of my virtual server once, as I only allowed for SSH access,  but seemed to have deleted all public keys needed on the server to allow my self to get back in.